Before the wheat leaf sheaths become erect after spring greenup, the developing growing point, which is below the soil surface, will soon begin to form a tiny head. Although the head is quite small at this point, it has already established some important yield components. At this stage, the maximum potential number of spikelets is determined. Sufficient nitrogen (N) should already be available in the root zone at this growth stage to maximize the potential number of seeds per head.

Once the embryo head has developed, the first internode will begin to elongate, pushing the head up through the leaf sheaths. This first internode will be hollow. This will be visible before you can actually feel the first node (joint, located just above the first internode).

FHS is the point at which a 1.5 cm (about half-inch) length of hollow stem can first be identified below the developing head (Figure 1). This length is roughly equivalent to the diameter of a dime, which makes its identification in the field easier. FHS occurs when the developing head is still below the soil surface. This means that producers have to dig plants out of the ground to measure it.

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Figure 1. Wheat plant reaching the first hollow stem stage of growth, characterized by approximately
1.5 cm (or roughly the diameter of a dime) of hollow stem underneath the developing grain head.
Photo by Romulo Lollato, K-State Research and Extension.

How to look for first hollow stem

To look for FHS, start by digging up some plants from fields or areas that have not been grazed, such as field corners or just outside the electric fence. Date of FHS is variety- and field-specific, so it is important to sample each individual field. Select the largest tillers to examine, and slice the stem open from the crown area up. Look for the developing head, which will be very small. Next, see if you can find any hollow stem between the developing head and the crown area. If there is any separation between the growing point and crown, the hollow stem is elongating. If that separation is 1.5 cm, the wheat plant is at FHS. FHS occurs between a few days to a week or more prior to jointing, depending on temperatures.

Yield losses from grazing past first hollow stem

If the wheat has reached FHS, cattle should be removed to prevent grain yield loss. Yield losses from grazing after FHS can range from 1 to 5% per day, depending on grazing intensity and the weather following cattle removal (Figure 2). If cattle removal is followed by cool, moist weather, yield losses will often average about 1% per day grazed after FHS; if weather is hot, dry, and harsh, yield losses of 5% per day or more can be expected. In fact, as much as 1.25 bushels per day yield decrease can occur according to data from Oklahoma State University. It is easy for producers to be late by a few days in removing livestock as they wait for obvious nodes and hollow stems to appear, and even the first few days can be significant.


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Figure 2. Percent of original wheat yield potential as affected by days of grazing past first hollow
stem and weather conditions following grazing termination. Average yield losses by grazing for
14 days past first hollow stem ranged from 10% under favorable conditions to 60% under
non-favorable conditions. Research conducted by Oklahoma State University (OSU) and
published as K-State publication MF3375 and OSU publication PSS-2178.

Two things are observed when wheat is grazed too long: 1) fewer heads per acre because the primary tiller has been removed, and 2) smaller and lighter heads than expected because leaf area has been removed. As cattle continue grazing, the wheat plant is stressed and begins to lose some of the tillers that would produce grain. A little later, if there is not enough photosynthate, the plant begins aborting the lower spikelets in the head or some of the florets on each head. Finally, if there is not enough photosynthate during grain filling, the seed size will be reduced and if the stress is severe enough, some seed will abort.

Air and soil temperatures during 2018

Crop development is mostly a function of available water, nutrients, and temperature. While nutrient availability is field specific and water has been limited since the fall for the majority of the wheat growing of the state, temperatures will be the focus of this discussion. Average temperatures across the entire state of Kansas were cooler-than-normal for the time period between January 1 and February 23 (Figure 3), which will likely delay the achievement of first hollow stem as compared to most years. The warm spell during February 17-23 elevated air and soil temperatures, especially in south central and southwest Kansas (Figure 4). These recently elevated temperatures could indicate that the crop will greenup and start developing soon. As temperatures increase and wheat begins growing more rapidly closer to the spring, producers should start thinking about when to pull cattle off pasture to protect grain yields.

Mark McNeely
Mark McNeely
Figure 3. Mean (upper panel) and departure from long-term average (lower panel) temperatures
during the January 1 – February 23, 2018 period. Graph generated by the K-State Weather Library.
Mark McNeely
Figure 4. Weekly average soil temperatures at the 2-inch depth during the February 17 – 23, 2018,
period. Graph generated by the K-State Weather Library.