By Mike Staton, Senior Educator
The soybean varieties you select will directly affect your yield potential and income in 2017. Because of this, Michigan State University Extension recommends you consider yield, pest and pathogen resistance, maturity, lodging and quality when selecting varieties.
Yield is the most important characteristic to consider when selecting soybean varieties. MSU Extension analyzed yield data from the Michigan Soybean Performance Reports from 2011-16 to demonstrate how dramatically variety selection impacts soybean yields and income. Table 1 summarizes how variety selection impacted soybean yield and Table 2 shows how variety selection affected gross income.
The yield potential under ideal growing conditions varies among varieties and the maximum yield potential of a given variety is also affected by weather and other environmental conditions. A variety that has the highest yield potential under ideal conditions may not yield as well as others when confronted with yield-limiting factors.
Research has shown that evaluating performance over a wide range of locations and over multiple years will help you select the best adapted varieties for your farm. The Michigan Soybean Performance Report is an excellent source for this information.
|Year||High minus the average (bushel per acre)||High minus the low (bushel per acre)|
|Year||High minus the average ($ per acre)||High minus the low ($ per acre)|
¹Economic advantage was determined by multiplying the yield advantage of the highest yielding varieties by the USDA average prices received for each marketing year – $12.50 per bushel for 2011-12; $14.40 per bushel for 2012-13; $13 per bushel for 2013-14; $10.10 per bushel for 2014-15; $8.95 per bushel for 2014-15 (estimated); and $9.20 per bushel for 2016-17 (projected).
An analysis of soybean yield and maturity data from the 2009-13 Michigan Soybean Performance Reports showed that maturity has little effect on soybean yields as long as the highest-yielding varieties are selected within the adapted maturity range for the area. The analysis also showed that on average, soybean harvest operations are delayed by one day for each 0.1 increase in soybean maturity group. This analysis supports the MSU Extension recommendation of planting a range of soybean maturity groups.
Pest and Pathogen Resistance
Significant yield reductions from soybean aphids, soybean diseases such as Phytophthora root and stem rot, white mold, sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) can be reduced by selecting resistant or tolerant varieties. In fact, variety selection is your best option for managing these pests. The 2016 Soybean Performance Report lists the genetic resistance to Phytophthora of the varieties tested. However, seed suppliers are the best source for more specific information, such as sudden death syndrome, Phytophthora and white mold tolerance for each of their varieties.
Iowa State University conducts the most comprehensive SCN resistant variety trials in the U.S. The annual report, Iowa State University Extension publication IPM 52, provides the source of SCN resistance, yield performance and SCN population suppression effects for all the entered varieties. The 2016 report is available online at the Iowa State University SCN-Resistant Soybean Variety Trials website.
The information published in the Iowa State University trials should be transferable and useful on your farm provided the varieties tested are adapted to your farm and the SCN population type at the trials is similar to the SCN population type in your fields. This is one more reason for having your SCN-infested fields type tested.
Growers are encouraged to rotate sources of SCN resistance and seed suppliers are the best place to get information regarding the source of the SCN resistance for their SCN resistant varieties.
Lodged soybean plants can increase harvest losses and significantly delay harvest operations. Lodging problems are most likely to occur when soybeans are grown on muck soils or under irrigation. Use the Michigan Soybean Performance Report to obtain lodging scores for the varieties entered in the trials.
Growers should also consider quality characteristics when selecting soybean varieties. Asian buyers demand soybeans consisting of 19% oil and 35% protein. Because Asian markets account for more than 50% of U.S. soybean exports, soybean growers need to meet this standard to maintain access to these markets. Oil and protein levels vary among varieties, so growers should select varieties containing 19% oil and 35% protein when possible. The Michigan Soybean Performance Report lists the oil and protein levels for all of the entries.
A Michigan Soybean Performance Report searchable database is also available online. The searchable database enables soybean growers to input specific search criteria such as SCN resistance, Phytophthora resistance, protein and oil content and maturity to identify the highest-yielding varieties having the selected characteristics.